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Extinct in the Wild (EW)
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The Hawaiian Crow or Alalā (Corvus hawaiiensis) is a species of bird in the crow family, Corvidae. It is about the size of the Carrion Crow at in length, but with more rounded wings and a much thicker bill. It has soft, brownish-black plumage and long, bristly throat feathers; the feet, legs and bill are black. Some Native Hawaiians consider the Hawaiian Crow an aumakua (family god).
The Hawaiian Crow is now extinct in the wild. Before this, the species was found only in the western and southeastern parts of the island of Hawaii. It inhabited dry and mesic forests on the slopes of Mauna Loa and Hualālai at elevations of . Ōhia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) and koa (Acacia koa) are important tree species in its habitat. Extensive understory cover is necessary to protect the 'alala from predation by io (Buteo solitarius), Hawaiian Hawk. Nesting sites receive of annual rainfall. Fossil remains indicate that it previously was relatively abundant on all the main islands, along with four other extinct crow species. The species is known for strong flying ability and resourcefulness, and the reasons for its extinction are not fully understood. It is thought that introduced diseases, such as Toxoplasma gondii, avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), and fowlpox, were probably a significant factor in the species' decline.
The varied diet of the omnivorous Hawaiian Crow is dominated by eggs and nestlings, invertebrates, and fruit; nectar, flowers, and carrion are minor components. Alalā will pry bark off trees and eat the insects found underneath. Ieie (Freycinetia arborea) vines are an important fruit source, although the birds are not normally seen in wet forests, where ieie density is highest.
The Hawaiian Crow has a call described variously as a two-toned caw and as a screech with lower tones added, similar to a cat's meow. It also makes a ca-wak sound, has a complex, burbling song, and makes a variety of other sounds as well.
The last two known wild individuals of this species disappeared in 2002; the species is now classified as Extinct in the Wild by the IUCN Red List. While some 78 individuals remain (as of July 2010) in two captive breeding facilities operated by the San Diego Zoo, attempts to reintroduce captive-bred birds into the wild have been hampered by predation by the Hawaiian Hawk (Buteo solitarius), which is listed as Near Threatened. On April 16, 2009, The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced a five year plan to spend more than $14 million to prevent the extinction of the Hawaiian Crow through protection of habitats and management of threats to the species.