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Critically Endangered (CR)
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Orange-bellied Parrot Images
The Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) is a small broad-tailed parrot endemic to southern Australia, and one of only two species of parrot which migrate. The adult male is distinguished by its bright grass-green upperparts, yellow underparts and orange belly patch. The adult female and juvenile are duller green in colour. All birds have a blue frontal band and blue outer wing feathers. The diet consists of seeds and berries of small coastal grasses and shrubs. The Orange-bellied Parrot breeds in Tasmania and winters in coastal grasslands on southern mainland Australia. With only 36 wild birds known to be alive after the summer 2011/12 breeding season, it is regarded as a critically endangered species. Orange-bellied Parrots are being bred in a captive breeding program with parrots in Taroona, Tasmania, Healesville Sanctuary, Adelaide Zoo, Melbourne Zoo and the Priam Parrot Breeding Centre. The captive population consists of 208 birds, with a target of 350 birds by 2016/17. Because of the alarming decline in the wild population recent years, an additional 21 birds from the wild population were captured in 2010/2011 to further improve the genetic diversity of the species' captive breeding program as an "insurance" against extinction.
The Orange-bellied Parrot was first described by ornithologist John Latham in 1790. He gave it the specific name, chrysogaster, Ancient Greek for 'golden belly'. No subspecies are recognised. It is one of six species of grass parrot in the genus Neophema. It has previously been known as the Orange-breasted Parrot - a name given to the Orange-bellied Parrot in 1926 by the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union or RAOU (now known as Birds Australia) when the word 'belly' was considered inelegant.
The Orange-bellied Parrot is a small parrot around long; the adult male has bright green upperparts, and yellow below with a prominent, two-toned blue frontal band, a green-blue uppertail with yellow sides, and an orange patch on its belly. The under wing-coverts and flight feathers are dark blue, with paler blue median wing-coverts. Its iris is dark brown and beak and feet greyish. The adult female is a duller green with a paler blue frontal band. The juvenile is a duller green colour. The Orange-bellied parrot utters soft tinkling notes, as well as a distinctive rapidly repeated chittering alarm call unlike that of other members of the genus. The alarm call is a quickly repeated tzeet.
Orange-bellied Parrots only breed in South West Tasmania, where they nest in eucalypts bordering on button grass moors. The entire population migrates over Bass Strait to spend the winter on the coast of south-eastern Australia. These few sites contain their favoured salt marsh habitat, and includes sites in or close to Port Phillip such as Werribee Sewage Farm, the Spit Nature Conservation Reserve, the shores of Swan Bay, Swan Island, Lake Connewarre State Wildlife Reserve, Lake Victoria and Mud Islands, as well as French Island in Western Port.
BirdLife International has identified the following sites as being, or having historically been, important for Orange-bellied Parrots: * Anderson Inlet * Bellarine Wetlands * Coorong * Corner Inlet * Discovery Bay to Piccaninnie Ponds * Hunter Island Group * King Island * Lake Hawdon System * Lakes Alexandrina and Albert * Melaleuca to Birchs Inlet * North-west Tasmanian Coast * Port Fairy to Warrnambool * Robbins Passage and Boullanger Bay * Shallow Inlet * Swan Bay and Port Phillip Bay Islands * Werribee and Avalon * Western Port * Yambuk
The Orange-bellied Parrot is found in pairs or small flocks, and generally remain on the ground or in low foliage searching for food. Their diet consists of seeds of species such as the grass Poa billardierei, saltbush (Atriplex cinerea), Suaeda australis and sea heath (Frankenia pauciflora), as well as berries, such as those of Coprosma. They have also been reported eating kelp.
Breeding season is October to January with one brood raised. The nest is a hollow in a tree, less than 5 m (16 ft) above the ground. Four or five white eggs are laid measuring 20 mm x 23 mm.
Neophema chrysogaster Nesting Box - Melaleuca.jpg|thumb|right|Nesting boxes intended for Orange-bellied Parrot use in Melaleuca, South West Tasmania This species has a very small population and is on the verge of extinction in the wild. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered. The current wild population is estimated at under 50 individuals, with a further 208 birds in captive breeding programs. Recent modelling suggests that on current trends the species will become extinct in the wild within five years. There are now estimated to be about 21 individuals in the wild and only five are known to have made the winter migration to the mainland in 2011. In May 2011, 10 individuals were captured and transferred by aircraft from Tasmania to Healesville Sanctuary near Melbourne in a last-ditch effort to save the species from extinction. It is hoped that the new additions from the wild will improve the genetic diversity of the 80 birds at Healesville Sanctuary, which are all descended from three pairs. Captive populations in Hobart and Adelaide are also important to the aim of releasing captive bred birds back to the wild.
It is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Orange-bellied Parrot has been recorded from four states within Australia; Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. Its conservation status varies from state to state within Australia. For example: * The Orange-bellied Parrot is listed as threatened on the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act (1988). Under this Act, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species has been prepared. * On the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria, the Orange-bellied Parrot is listed as critically endangered.
The 2000 Action Plan for Australian Birds identifies the following potential threats to the Orange-bellied Parrot: * Fragmentation and degradation of over-wintering habitat * Competition with introduced seed-eaters * Abandonment of former breeding habitat due to altered fire regime and competition for hollows (with the introduced Common Starling) * Random events due to the small size of the population * Disorientation from brightly lit fishing boats (during the migrations across Bass Strait) * Introduced predators * Disease (such as Psittacine Circoviral Disease) Other identified potential threats include: * Lack of safety in numbers for a small bird attractive to avian predators (Brouwer and Garnett 1990) * Historically was trapped for aviculture (Garnett 1992) * A stomach virus is threatening a breeding program for the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot.
The Orange-bellied Parrot earned the wrath of Victorian premier Jeff Kennett in the 1990s. A proposed relocation of the Coode Island Chemical storage facility to a location near Point Wilson, Victoria was jeopardised by the potential impacts upon Orange-bellied Parrot habitat. Mr Kennett described this species as a 'trumped-up corella'. (This epithet was later adopted as the title for the Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Team's newsletter.) Orange-bellied Parrots were considered in the impact assessment for the Woolnorth windfarm on Tasmanias north-west coast. The planning proposal was thoroughly assessed by both State and Commonwealth regulators (having been determined to be a controlled action under the EPBC Act). Surveys and collision risk modeling was undertaken as well as a population viability analysis to assess the impact on the species. The wind farm is not in the flight path of OBPs, but they do pass near by. In 2001, then Australian federal environment minister Robert Hill approved the wind farm. To date no Orange-bellied Parrots have been found to collide with the turbines. Monitoring continues today as well as measures to reduce OBPs coming near the wind farm. In 2006, the potential threats to the Orange-bellied Parrot were cited as the key reason for Commonwealth Minister rejecting the proposal to build the Bald Hills Wind Farm in eastern Victoria. It was found there were no significant risks to the species, and the decision was reversed. The company was provided with approval to proceed (under certain conditions). The intense media scrutiny at this time placed the Orange-bellied Parrot temporarily into the spotlight. In the subsequent months additional funding was provided for the parrot's recovery, and its status under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 was raised from endangered to critically endangered.